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OG2020上线!博智名师教研组的OG20新题解析也出炉了!

语法

Official Guide 2020 / Sentence Correction
New Added: 790~791,794~797, 819, 823~824, 827, 831~832,836

2020语法新题拿到手做了一下,第一感觉:来者不善。

句子又长又臭,倒装插入省略用到飞起;动词、并列、修饰这些主流考点倒是没变,但是找到它们颇需要花一些时间;在找准语义之前,容易被搭配和所谓用法优劣的干扰带走,直接杀正确选项。

废话不多说,千变万变,语义为王不变。我们做题。

(时间仓促,句意不能信达雅,考虑做不到万全,跟考场一分钟做一题的状态类似。抛砖引玉。)

SC12710.01
790. When working with overseas clients, an understanding of cultural norms is at least as important as grasping the pivotal business issues for the global manager.

A. When working with overseas clients, an understanding of cultural norms is at least as important as grasping the pivotal business issues for the global manager.

B. When they work with overseas clients, understanding cultural norms is at least of equivalent importance to grasping the pivotal business issues for the global manager.

C. For global managers working with overseas clients, understanding

cultural norms is at least as important as grasping the pivotal businessissues.

D. For global managers working with overseas clients, an understanding of cultural norms is at least as important to them as grasping the pivotal

business issues.

E. Global managers working with overseas clients find an understanding of

cultural norms to be equally important to grasping the pivotal businessissues.

句意:当和海外客户合作的时候,理解文化习俗起码和把握重要的商业问题对全球经理来说同样重要。

考点:修饰语和主语之间的关系,比较,主句动词强调的语义

排除过程:

1. 修饰语和主语之间的关系:句子开头的修饰语和主句主语之间有紧密的关系,A选项working的主语搭配成了an understanding, B选项开头用了they但是逗号后面没有尽快给出they 的指代对象,时间紧张的情况下,AB先放弃了。

2. 比较:CD竖着比,并列有差别,C是understanding …as…grasping  D 是an understanding…as…grasping , 语义平行,没道理形式不平行,可以放弃D了,留C. 也有老师补充说D选项里面的to them 和句首的for the global manager语义是重复的。

3. CE都对,主句动词体现的语义有差别,C说的是对他们来说,一件事情和另外一件事情同等重要;E说的是,他们发现一件事情和另外一件事情同等重要。E比C多了一层语义,而“他们发现”这个限制是否存在我们不知道,选C比较安全。

C


SC87460.01
791. Often major economic shifts are so gradual as to be indistinguishableat first from ordinary fluctuations in the financial markets.

A. so gradual as to be indistinguishable

B. so gradual they can be indistinguishable

C. so gradual that they are unable to be distinguished

D. gradual enough not to be distinguishable

E. gradual enough so that one cannot distinguish them

句意:重大的经济变化经常是和缓到一开始无法区别于普通的金融市场波动。

考点:修饰,句意

排除过程:

1. 句意:选项三二分组,ABC so …that表示如此以至于,DE enough表示足够怎么样,句子应该是要讲前者的后果,不是要描述什么样就是足够的,从句意角度放弃DE。
2. ABC三个选项竖着比比,B选项so 后面跟的一个完整句,为什么没有that来标记呢?C选项用unable 带了一个被动态,如果说谁不能做什么还好理解一点,说不能被做,被动主体不会发出动作,谈论它的能与不能,是没有意义的。矮子里面拔将军,A好一些。
A

逻辑 

Official Guide 2020 / Critical Reasoning

New Added: 610~616, 618~623, 626~627, 632, 658, 661~662, 664, 668, 673,679, 688~690, 695~696, 699, 704.



610. Arts advocate: Few universities require that students who are specializingin science and technology take many art courses. 

However, real progress inscience and technology requires an element of creativity, which the arts foster.Thus, 

to help science and technology students succeed in their careers,

universities should increase the number of art courses required for them.

Which of the following would, if true, most strengthen the argument above?

A. Universities required more art courses for science and technology students in the past.

B. Participation in art courses increases students' creative thinking in their

science and technology courses.

C. More students who are interested in art would specialize in science and

technology if the number of art courses required for those programs wereincreased.

D. Some of the most prominent scientists began their careers as artists.

E. Discussion of science and technology topics in art courses increases creative

thinking among students in those courses.


要求你支持原文的那个说法,原文不就想让理科生参加艺术课程嘛?

A选项说的是过去要求参加艺术课程,过去参加和这次参加时间上张冠李戴了,杀。

B说参加这个课程增加学生创新性,那就让我感觉这个课程靠谱,留着。

C范围错了,原本想说的是让理科生参加艺术课程,这个建议和原文所说的人群根本就不是同一个,原文建议的是理科生参加艺术课程,这个选项说的是艺术生参加理科课程,人群不是同一种,杀。

D说很多科学家刚开始都是艺术家,那这些人参加了艺术课程变成的艺术家吗?没说,所以我没感觉这个课程靠谱。

E说在艺术课里讨论科学,拉倒吧原文就是让这些理科生参加艺术课去听音乐看电影,不是挂羊头卖狗肉让他在艺术课上讨论科学,无关,杀。

B


CR48541.01

611. A successful coffee stand that serves the workers in a large office buildingplans to increase its profits by 

adding oatmeal—a hot cereal popular among theworkers

to its menu. The manager says that oatmeal is “the ultimateconvenience food” because it can be served by the cup, as coffee is; 

further,offering oatmeal will enable the stand to get into the breakfast business withoutmaking a large investment, 

because it does not require elaborate cookingequipment.

Which of the following would, if true, most strengthen the likelihood that themanager's plan will achieve its goal?

A. Some of the office building's businesses have recently begun providing free

coffee to their employees.

B. The ingredients needed to make oatmeal are inexpensive and do not spoil

easily the way many fresh breakfast foods typically sold at coffee stands do.

C. In order to offer more flexible schedules to their workers, several businesses

in the office building will soon be expanding their hours.

D. Supermarket sales of oatmeal and other cereals slowed this year following

large gains last year.

E. Oatmeal manufacturers have recently reduced their oatmeal offerings,which had included oatmeal in microwaveable cups 

and convenient cereal

bars made with rolled oats.


让你支持原文的o那种早餐,

A说提供免费咖啡,这个和原文主张的o那种方便早餐有个什么关系,杀了。

B说o这个东西原材料不贵并且不容易坏,那就让我感觉这个o靠谱,留着。

C和o这个早餐就没关系,神经病答案。

D说超市o的销售量,不是原文的那个地方,地点范围不对,杀。

E说o的生产商减少订单了,可是原文认为o不贵,方便,主张用o,生产商o减产,我就觉得o这个早餐做不出来了,怎么支持,驳斥还有点意思。杀。

B

阅读

OG2020新增两篇文章。其中一篇是全新的文章。另一篇是大家的老朋友——水权。
本次博智就来给大家分析一下这篇新增的文章。
新增的文章看似很长,有足足五段,将近50行。有同学可能会被这么长的篇章所吓倒。但其实这篇文章是一篇简单的文章,从扫读文章以及做题上来看皆是如此。
1. 扫读上。文章虽长,但是句间关系和段间关系搭建都较为简单。大家可以参考老师写的每段主旨和段间关系。
2. 题目上。有一半儿的题目定位都很简单。值得注意的是495题,如果大家用单词定位,很容易栽跟头。而如果用上老师上课教的用句间关系定位,则此题能迅速解出。还有499和501题,题目都问得很大,感觉非常不好定位。你有没有像课上教过的那样,尝试用主旨解题呢?

Arboria is floundering in the global marketplace, Line
incurring devastating losses in market position and
profits. The problem is not Arboria's products, but
Arboria's trade policy. Arboria faces the prospect
 (5)  of continuing economic loss until Arborian business
and political leaders recognize the fundamental
differences between Arborian and foreign economic
systems. Today the key trade issue is not free trade
versus protectionism but diminishing trade versus
(10) expanding trade.
P1:A损失了,分析原因在于它的贸易政策。
Arboria is operating with an obsolete trade policy,
an artifact of the mid-1940s when Arboria and
Whorfland dominated the global economy, tariffs
were the principal obstacle to trade, and Arborian
(15)  supremacy was uncontested in virtually all industries.
In the intervening decades, economic circumstances
have shifted radically. Arborian trade policy has not.
P2:继续说它的贸易政策,说这政策过时了。
Today, Arboria's trade policy seems paralyzed
by the relentless conflict between proponents of
(20)  “free” and “fair” trade. The free traders argue that
Arborian markets should be open, and the movement
of goods and services across national borders
unrestrained. The fair traders assert that access to
Arborian markets should be restricted until Arborian
 (25) businesses are granted equal access to foreign
markets. They contend that free trade is impossible 
while other nations erect barriers to Arborian exports.
P3:继续在说A的贸易政策不行。A的贸易政策受到free trade 和fair trade这两个概念冲突所害
Both are correct: fair trade requires equal access
and equal access leads to free trade. But both sides
 (30) base their positions on the same two outdated
premises:
1. Global commerce is conducted under the terms of
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
and dominated by Arboria and similar economic
(35) systems abroad. 
2. Multilateral negotiations are the most effective way
to resolve pressing trade issues.
P4:继续在讲两个概念。说他们都对,但是他们的base是错的;
Both assumptions are wrong. The 40-year-old GATT
now covers less than 7 percent of global commerce.
(40) World trade is no longer dominated by the free-
trade economies; nearly 75 percent is conducted
by economic systems operating with principles at
odds with those of Arboria. Forging a multilateral
trade policy consensus among so many diverse
(45) economic systems has become virtually impossible.
And while multilateral talks drag on, Arboria misses
opportunities for trade expansion.
P5:接着第四段两个假设。说这两个假设都不对。
Questions 494–501 refer to the passage.
RC38200-01.01
494. Which of the following best states the difference between free trade and fair trade, as explained in the passage?
A. Free trade requires no trade tariffs whatsoever, whereas fair trade assumes  multilateral agreement on tariffs for goods of equal worth.
B. Free trade is based on the unrestricted movement of goods across all
national boundaries, whereas fair trade is based on a nation's restriction of commerce with each nation that erects trade barriers to the first nation's exports. 
C. The trade policies of countries like Arboria are based on the principles of  free trade, whereas the trade policies of other types of world economies are based on fair trade.
D. Free-trade nations negotiate individual trade agreements with each of their  trading partners, whereas fair-trade nations conduct multilateral trade  negotiations.
E. Free trade assumes a constant level of global commerce, whereas fair trade
promotes a steady expansion of international trade.

这题问的是free trade和fair trade之间的区别,定位是比较容易的,在文章第三段“The free traders argue that Arborian markets should be open…… foreign markets.”这个对比不难读懂,主要是一个主张unrestricted一个强调要restricted直到对方开放市场;A选项的对比点在于no tariff 和multilateral, no tariff和unrestricted 有点一致,multilateral和restricted 不知道是不是一个东西,可以先放着看看下面;B选项的对比点是原文的unrestricted和restricted, 与原文最一致,比A好,干掉A;C选项的对比点在于A国家free而其他国家fair,无关;D选项的对比点是individual trade agreement和multilateral trade negotiation,无关;E选项的对比点是constant level(不变水平)和expansion(扩张),无关。
选B

RC38200-02.01
495. It can be inferred that the author of the passage would most likely agree with which of the following statements about multilateral trade negotiations?
A. They are the most effective way to resolve trade problems.
B. They are most effective in dealing with fair-trade issues between nations.
C. They have only recently begun to make an impact on world trade.
D. Arborian reliance on multilateral trade negotiations, while appropriate in
the past, is inadequate for today's global marketplace.
E. The principles of multilateral trade negotiations are incompatible with  current Arborian foreign trade policy.

这题问作者同意关于multilateral trade的哪些观点,即作者对multilateral trade的态度;
读懂问题后,开始定位。如果纯用单词定位,这题容易用单词定位到“2. Multilateral negotiations are the most effective way to resolve pressing trade issues.” 这句话,从而错选。
那为什么定位到这句话不够呢?因为但从这句话,我们无法判断作者对于这句话的态度。记住题目让我找的是作者同意的关于multilateral trade的观点。我们得利用句间关系,去找到作者的态度。
那我们往前或者往后看一下,搭建下句间关系。能够看到1 和2都是跟着“But both sides base their positions on the same two outdated premises:”这句话的。这句话表明了作者的态度。作者认为1和2都是过时的假设。

现在来看选项。A和B都说他们很有效果,是肯定的方向。跟说“他们过时了”这种否定的方向相反。先扔掉。C说他们最近才开始对世界贸易有影响。跟“他们过时了”直接相反。干掉。
D选项说这个策略不适用于今天的市场,方向可以,留下;
E选项说这个策略和A国的策略不兼容,方向看似对,但是对象是错的;文章讲的就是A国现在用这个multilateral导致损失很大,那么其实是multilateral和现在的市场不合适,不是和A国政策不一致。
选D


RC38200-03.01
496. Which of the following statements best summarizes the author's opinion of “free traders” and “fair traders”?
A. The free and the fair traders' continuing debate provides a healthy and
effective forum for examining Arborian trade policy.
B. The proponents of fair trade are essentially correct, while those who  advocate free trade are not.
C. The proponents of free trade are better able to deal with current economic
problems than are the fair traders.
D. Neither the free nor the fair traders can come up with a workable trade
policy because neither takes multilateral negotiations into account.
F. The proponents of both free and fair trade have based their positions on  out-of-date premises that do not reflect current economic conditions.

这题问作者对于free trader和fair trader的态度,注意这里不是问这两个是什么而是作者对他们的态度,定位在文章第四段第二句:这两方用了相同而过时的两个前提,这句话第一代表了作者的态度是负向的,第二说明作者对这两者态度相同,没有偏向性;
A选项说这个好,方向就错了,干掉;BC选项说一个这样而另一个那样,作者没有偏向性,干掉;D说这俩都不对因为这俩都不考虑multilateral,方向是对的,但是扯进来一个multilateral,定位句没有,可以先放着;E选项说这里都基于一个过时的前提,和原文完全一致,干掉D。

选E 
RC38200-04.01
497. The author mentions all of the following as characteristic of world trade in the mid-1940s EXCEPT:
A. Arboria played a major role in the global marketplace.
B. Whorfland played a major role in the global marketplace.
C. Tariffs were the main obstacle to trade.
D. Fair-trade economies dominated international trade.
E. Arborian manufacturers were unsurpassed in most industries.

细节题,问作者提到下列选项除了哪个都是mid-1940s的特征,定位在文章第二段:
1. A和W主宰全球经济;2. tariffs是主要贸易壁垒;3. A过在几乎all industries都无敌;分别对应ABCE;这段没有讲fair trade的事情。
选D
RC38200-05.01
498. In presenting the argument in the passage, the author uses all of the following EXCEPT:
A. statistical information about global commerce
B. definitions of terms concerning world trade
C. generalizations about Arboria's economic system
D. historical background of Arborian trade policy
E. an example of an economic system whose principles differ from those of  Arboria

这题问作者用了下列方式除了哪个,这种题目一般会出现在比较后面的几道题当中,同学们不要慌,也不用着急看一遍全文,先试着用以上几题的经验看看能不能排除一些选项;
A选项是数据,这个很明显有,文章最后一段有数据;B选项是学术名词解释,这个free trade和fair trade有;C选项是A经济体系的概况,文章第一段就在讲A经济现在什么样;D选项是A国贸易的历史,这个上一题mid-1940s有;E说和A国不同的经济体的例子,只有这个选项我们在文章脉络以及做上面题的过程中都没有遇见。
选E


RC38200-06.01
499. The author asserts which of the following about Arboria's trade policy?
A. A dramatic revision of Arboria's trade policy will be necessary unless
Arborian manufacturers improve the quality of their goods.
B. The most crucial issue facing Arborian trade policymakers is that of free  trade versus protectionism.
C. Arboria's current trade policy was essentially developed during the 1940s
and has changed little since that time.
D. Arboria's trade policy is widely emulated throughout the world, to the
extent that most international commerce is modeled on Arboria's principles 
E. Arboria's trade policy has evolved gradually over the last eighty years,
constantly readjusting itself in response to shifts in global commerce.

这题问作者关于A国的贸易政策说了什么,这个题问的非常大,我们先试图用主旨来做一下:A选项说A国的政策需要改变除非提高产品质量,前半句我们可以通过文章主旨获得,但文章的主旨在于需要变,而不是除非怎样就要变(当然如果强迫症的同学们会找到第一段作者讲的是问题不在于产品质量,也就是产品质量并不重要);B选项说得是最重要的事情是free trade vs protectionism,我们前面没有读到(第一段最后一句话否定了这个选项);C选项说A国的政策1940s后基本没变过,这个信息理文章脉络的时候就有看到,及A国的主要问题就是不变;D选项说世界大多数经济体都是以A国的经济体为模型来的,没读过;E选项说A国的经济体在过去80年一直在进化,文章主要说A国的经济策略不变,不是一直在与时俱进的,反了,干掉;由此,C选项是我们主旨上就有的,大胆选,其他没读过或者与文章相反的就可以干掉。

选C 
RC38200-07.01
500. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. illustrating the erosion of Arboria's position in the world marketplace
B. examining the differences between “free” and “fair” traders
C. advocating a reassessment of Arboria's trade policy
D. criticizing the terms of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
E. comparing the different economic circumstances of Arboria's trade
Partners

问文章主旨:
A选项说说明了A国地位的下降,文章后面的信息更多在解释A国经济体问题的原因是什么而不是在给我们简单描述阐释A国地位下降这个事实;B选项说free trade和fair trade的区别,这是文章的一个细节,文章写这个细节是为了更好说明A国经济存在的问题,所以这不是主旨;C选项说支持对A国贸易政策的一个重新评价,这个选项很宽泛,文章说了A国不好,不好的原因是什么,是可以被“reassessment”这个概念罩住的,留下;D选项说批判GATT,这仍然是文章的一个袭击而不是主旨;E选项说比较A国的贸易伙伴的不同经济状况,完全没讲,干掉。
选C
RC38200-08.01
501. The author implies that the main obstacle to a truly effective Arborian trade policy is the
A. weak position that Arboria currently holds in the global marketplace
B. inability of Arborian leaders to recognize that foreign economic systems are  based on principles fundamentally different from their own
C. dominance of the supporters of free trade in the conflict between free-trade
and fair-trade advocates
D. apparent inability of Arborian industries to produce goods that are
competitive in the world market
E. protectionism that characterizes the foreign trade policies of so many of  Arboria's trade partners

这题问作者暗示说一个有效的trade policy的主要障碍在于什么;这题问的比较宽泛,我们尝试用主旨先排除选项。
A选项说是A国的国际地位,没读过;B选项说是A国没有认识到外国的经济和自己的原则完全不同,主旨是A国不变,其他都在变,这与主旨沾边,留着(当然,文章第一段第五行说明了这个选项,即只有A国意识到自己与其他的不同他才会停止损失);C选项说问题在于free trade占主导地位,错,文章free和fair没有偏好,一直是同时存在的;D选项说A产业不能做出来好产品,与主旨无关,主旨不是说产品;E选项说A国的贸易伙伴用protectionism,文章主旨是A国自己不改变,不是其伙伴保护主义的问题。
选B


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